The district extends over three physiographic divisions. They are
the Malwa in the north, the Vindhyachal range in central zone and
the Narmada valley along the southern boundary. However, the valley
is again closed up by the hills in the south-western part.
The Vindhyachal range
A part of the range extends in the district in a crescentic belt generally
from south-east to north-west. The range is represented by a strip
of hilly area 5 to 20 kilometres in width. It is about 5 km wide near
village Dhani near the south-eastern boundary. Near Mograbav in the
centre, it is about 10 km further widening to 20 km west of Tanda.
To the west of Bagh and Kukshi the range stands disconnected by the
valleys of the Mahi and Hatni.
It restarts along the Narmada in the south-west. The northern spur
(peak 543.76 metres) froms the boundary between the Sardarpur tahsil
and Jhabua district. It extends from the peak of Gomanpura (556.26
metres) to Bajrangarh in Jhabua. Another spur extends to wards Jhabua
in the north-west. The great Vindhyachal range extends generally from
west to east and scarps at most of its length towards the south. In
Dhar also the south-ward escarps are well marked, the wall rising
from 400 to 600 metres. However, in the western part their faces have
been eroded back into long and deep rugged valleys of the tributary
hills of the Narmada. In fact the strong currents of the small strems
on the steep southern side have cut back at their heads. The numerous
streams of the Narmada valley find their sources on the Malwa plateau.
The main line of the highest peaks has been left to the south of their
In the eastern and central parts of the Vindhyachal in Dhar the main
hill range is continuous but in the west it is dissected by deep channels
of the rivulets. The range slopes towards the north and gradually
meets the Malwa plateau. Numerous spurs also extend over the Malwa
plateau in the north. But in the western half in the district one
may also find a series of denuded ridges alternating with the parallel
stream-channels and running for some kilometres from local confusion,
unless one tries to trace the line of the main peaks.
The hightest peak of the district, Mograba (751.03 metres) lies in
the central part. Nilkanth (702.26 metres) lies further east and the
Shikarpura hill rises up to 698.91 metres. The famous historical fort
of Mandugarh towers the flat-topped hill about 600 metres, from the
mean sea level.
The Malwa Plateau
The northern half of the district lies on the Malwa plateau. It covers
the northern parts of Dhar, Sardarpur and Badnawar tahsils.
The average elevation of the plateau is 500 metres above the mean
sea level. The land is undulation with a few scattered flat topped
hills roughly aligned between the valleys from south to north. The
general slope is towards the north. The valleys are covered with black
cotton soil of varying thickness, mostly adapted for cultivation.
The mounds may bear gravels or the underlaying sandstone rocks may
have been exposed. The plateau covers an area of about 466,196 hectares
in the district.
The Narmada Valley
Below the Vindhyachal scarps lies the narrow valley of the Narmada.
It occupies the sourthern part of the district in Manawar tahsil
and the south-eastern part of Kukshi tahsil. The width of the
valley is 15 to 30 kilometres. The elavation varies from 275 metres
in the northern part of Manawar tahsil to 150 metres in the low plain
of Nisarpur in the south-west. To the east between Khalghat and Bakaner
the valley is undulation wider, more open and fertile with alluvial
cover. Proceeding westwards the valley is studded with hills alternatively
cut up by numerous streams which join the Narmada along the southern
boundary of the district. The result is that there are few stretches
and pockets of alluvium along the streams.
The southern part of the district lies in the catchment area of the
Narmada which forms the southern boundary. The north-eastern part
is drained by the Chambal and its tributaries. It forms the catchment
area of the Ganga. The north-western part drains into the Mahi. The
water-dividing line between the Narmada and the Chambal and the Mahi
are separated by the off-shoot range which runs along the Sardarpur-Jhabua
The Narmada river flows along the southern boundary of the district
in a rift valley from east to west with a southerly inclination. It
rises from the Amarkantak plateau of the Satpura range in Shahdol
district. Flowing to the west it touches the district at Lasangaon
at the confluence with the Karametre It forms the southern boundary
of the district along with that of the West Nimar for about 107 Kilometres.
It receives the Boad, Dob, Mahali and Goi on its left while the Karam,
the Man, and the Bagh join its right bank.
The river has been mentioned by Ptolemy and the author of the Periplus.
The Ramayana, the Mahabharat and Puranas refer
to it frequently. The Rewa Khand of Vayu Puran and the
Rewa Khand of Skand Puran are entirely devoted to the
story of the birth and the importance of the River. It is said to
have sprung from the body of Lord Shiva. It was created in
the form of a lovely damsel who enamoured gods and hence named by
the Lord as Narmada, delight giving.
It is also said to have been in love with the Sonbhadra, another
river flowing on the Chhota Nagpur plateau. According to the Puranas
the Narmada is also called the Rewa, from its leaping motion (from
the root rev) through its rocky bed.
To Shiva the river is specially sacred on account of its origin,
and it is often called Shankari, i.e., daughter of Shankar. All the
pebbles rolling on its bed are said to take the shape of his emblem
with the saying. Narmada Ke Kanker utte Sankar. These lingam
(phallus) shaped stones, called Banalinga are much sought after for
daily worship by the Hindus.
In the central parts of India the river is held to be far more sacred
than any other stream in India. Even Ganga herself is obliged to come
and dip in these waters once a year. She comes in the form of a coal-black
cow and dip in these waters once a year. She comes in the form of
a coal-black cow and returns home pure white, free from all sins.
A sighting of the Narmada is considered equivalent to a bath in the
Ganga. At numerous places along its course there are temples, and
fairs are held. Pilgrims perform Pradakshina, i.e, walking
along the southern bank from its source to the mouth and going back
along the northern bank. The performance is regarded to be of the
highest religious efficacy.
The river is crossed by roads at Khalghat and Chikhalda in the district.
Otherwise ferries are managed by the local administration at important
The Course of the Narmada
The source of the Naramada is a small tank called Narmada Kund located
on the Amarkantak hill (1057 m).The river descends from the Amarkantak
hill range at the Kapildhara falls over a cliff. After leaving Shahdol
district it meaders in the hills flowing through a tortuous course
crossing the rocks and islands up to the ruined palace of Ramnagar.
Between Ramnagar and Mandla 25 km further southeast the course is
comparatively straight with deep water devoid of rocky obstacles.
The Banger joins from the left. The rever then runs north-east in
a narrow loop towards Jabalpur. Close to this city , after a fall
of some 9metre called the Dhuandhara, the fall of mist, it flows for
3 km in a deep narrow channel which it has carved out for itself through
the magnesium limestone and basalt. From a width of about 90 metres
above, it is compressed in this channel of 18 metres only. The highest
point of the cliff was measured 40.5 metres. (133 feet) height above
the water level in December,1965, by the Geologial Survey of India,
Madhya Pradesh Circle, Jabalpur. Beyond this point up to its meeting
the Arabian Sea the Narmada enters three narrow valleys between the
Vindhyan Scarps in the north and the Satpura range in the South. The
southern extension of the valley is wider at most places. These three
valley sections are separated by the closely approaching line of the
scarps and the Satpura hills.
Emerging from the Marble Rocks the river enters its first fertile
basin which extend, about 320 km, with an average width of 35 km in
the south. In the north the valley is limited to the Barna-bareli
plain, termination at Barkhara hills opposite Hoshangabad. However,
the hills again recede in the Kannod plains. The banks are about 12
metre high. It is in the first valley of the Naramada. Many of its
important tributaries from the south join it, and bring the waters
of the northern slopes of the Satpura hills. Among them are the sher,
the Shakkar, the Dudhi, the Tawa & the Ganjal. The Hiran, the Barna,
the Choral, the Karam and the Lohar are the important tributaries
joining from the north. The large dams and irrigaton projects constructed
across the Tawa and the Barna are of immense potentiality for multifarious
economic developments on either side of the Narmada.
Below Handia and Nemawar to Hiran fall (the deer's leap) the river
is approached by hills from both sides. In this stretch the character
of the river is varied. The Onkareshwar island sacred to the Shiva
is the most important river island in Madhya Pradesh. At first the
descent is rapid and the stream, quickening in pace, rushes over a
barrier of rocks. The Sikta and the Kaveri join it below the Khandwa
plain. At two points, at Mandhar, about 40 km below Nemawar, and Dadrai,
40 km further down near Punasa the river falls over a height of about
A few kilometres further down near Bareli and the crossing ghat of
the Mumbai to Indore road the Narmada enters the Mandleshwar plain,
the second basin about 180 km long and 65 km wide in the south. The
northern strip of the basin is only 25 km The second valley section
is broken only by Saheshwar Dhara fall. The early course of about
125 km up to Markari falls is met with a succession of cataracts and
rapids from the elevated table land of Malwa to the lowlevel of Gujarat
plain. Towards the west of this basin the hills draw very close but
soon dwindle down.
Below Makrai the river flows between Baroda and Nandod and then meander
through the rich plain of Broach district of Gujarat state. The banks
are high between the layers of old alluvial deposits, hardened mud,
gravels of nodular limestone and sand. The width of the river spans
from about 1.5 km at Makrai to 3 km near Broach and to an estuary
of 21 km at the Gulf of Cambay. An old channel of the river 1 to 2
km south from the present one is very clear below broach. The Karanjan
and the Orsing are the most important tributaries in the ower course.
The former joins at Rundh and the latter at Vyas in Baroda district
of Gujarat, opposite each other and form a Triveni on the Narmada.
The Amaravati and the Bhukhi are other tributaries of significance.
Opposite the mouth of the Bhukhi is a large drift called Alia Bet
or Kadaria Bet.
The tidal rise is felt up to 32 km above Broach, where the neap tides
rise to about a metre and spring tide 3.5 metre The reach of the saline
tidal water make the river unsuitable for irrigation. The river is
navigable for vessels of the burthen of 95 tonnes (i.e., 380 Bombay
candies) up to Broach and for vessels up to 35 tonnes (140 Bombay
candies) up to Shamlapitha er Ghangdia. The small vessels (10 tonnes)
voyage upto Tilakawada in Gujrat. There are sand bases and shoals
at mouth and at Broach, to count important ones only.
The Chambal, Charmanwati or Charmawati of the ancient times rises
from the western slopes of Janapao hill (854.35 metre) in Indore district.
It is the most important river of Malwa. Initially it has a north
westerly course and flows through Dhar district for 17 km separating
the Sagor projection in the east. The river then turns to the north
and forms the eastern boundary for about 10 km The river further flows
in to Ujjain, Ratlam and Mandsaur districts of Madhya Pradesh while
forming the northern boundary of Gwalior Division. The river tributes
The Chambal is joined by the Bageri nala and the Chambala nala
on its left, which drain most of Dhar and Badnwar Tahsil. The Banas
joins the Chambal on its left bank whereas the Parwan, Parwati, Kunu
and the Sind join it on the right bank.
The Mahi River
The Mahi river rises from the northern slopes of the Gomanpur hills
in Sardarpur tahsil. It flows due north and forms the north-western
boundary of Sardarpur tahsil. The river is joined by the Bageri nala
from the right before it leaves the district. Thence it takes a north-westerly
course in Ratlam district. After crossing the Banswara district of
Rajasthan the river takes an acute turn towards the south-west and
enters in to the Bay of Khambhat.
The Karam rises from the Singarchori hill of Indore. It drains a small
area north of the Vindhyachal range and cuts across it to the south,
forms the south-eastern boundary near Gujari and joins the Narmada.
It rises from the southern scarps of the Malwa plateau. It flows to
the south and joins the Narmada past Nimkhera and Kheri amidst the
hills and Manawar and Bakaner in the Narmada valley.
The Bagh and the Uri also rise from the southern scraps and jointly
drain into the Narmada. Tanda is located on the bank of Uri. The Bagh
flows past Bagh, Kukshi and Nisarpur. The Hatni rises in Jhabua district
and forms the western boundary of Dhar for some distance before joining
The geological formation are bedded in the following
order of increasing antiquity.
The foliation trend of the metasediments varies
from N. 35 o W. - S. 35 o E. to N. 65 o
W. - S. 65 o E. The dip is steeply towards south-west and
north-east. The metasediments in the vicinity of Bagh are folded into
an isoclinal synciline which appears to plunge towards south-east.
The biotite- gneiss is pink to light grey in colour and contains thin
bands of quartz-feldspathic material alternating with mafics. The
gneiss occurs in the Bagh river section between Khera and Oria, the
Gadri river section between Kher and Pipri and around Baktala.
The siliceous dolomite is dark-grey, compact and finegrained. It contains
essentially quartz and dolomite. It occurs near Tanda, Jamla and Barkhera.
Slates and phyllites, pink to grey, are found near Bagh, Tanda, Deojhiri
The amphibolites occur as instrusions, generally as sills, into the
biotite gneisses and phyllites. These rocks are medium to coarse grained
and dark green to black in colour. They are hard compact. Mineralogically,
they consist of hornblende, quartz, oligoclase, andesine and subordinate
labradorite sphene, apatite, magnetite and ilmenite occur as accessories.
These occur near Bharkia, Udaipur and Balda.
and Quartz Veins)
A pegmatite vein occurs within the gneiss near
Bharkia. Except slates, all other Archaean metased ments of the area
are traversed by quartz veins, mostly comformable to their foliation
The Bagh beds comprise the Nimar sandstone and
nodular limestone. Deola-Marl and Coralline Limestones in the ascending
order and occur as inliers within the Deccan Trap. Of these, the last
three members are profusely fossiliferous and attain a thickness of
about 25 metre These beds are of marine sedimentary origin. They are
The Nimar sandstone is well exposed along the Bagh river, of Bagh
, the Uri river north of Ajanta, the Gadri river, north of Pipri,
the hatni river and the man river east of Gandhwani. The Nimar Sandstone
is yellow to brownish red in colour. It is ferruginous, medium to
coarse grained, gritty and slightly calcareous in nature. East to
Bagh and near Satemari the sadstone is conglomeratic and contains
pebbles of quartz and jasper.
In this section this rock contains quartz together with microcline,
oligoclase and fragments of quartzite, granite, cherts and basic rocks.
The matric is ferruginous, siliceous calcarous and clayey. Tourmaline,
zircon, apatite, rutile, garnet and sphene are the heavy minerals.
The following fossils have been found in the upper beds of Nimar near
Amlipura, Ajanta and on Bagh-Kukshi road:
- Shark: Species of Lamna and Scapanerhunchus
Molluscs Species of Ostrea, Turritella, and
Natica, and also fossilised wood and bone fragments.
Major occurrences of the Nedular limestone are found near Jamniapura,
on both sides of the Bagh river near Nandgaon and Khandlai. It is
thinly bedded and white to light blue and light brown in colour. The
nodules are of calcareou and cherty nature. The limestone is soft,
cavernous and fossiliferous.
The Devla marl is well developed in the Man river valley near Deola,
Chirakhan, Chakrod, Karaondia, south of Thuati and north of Ajanta.
It is soft and highly friable, grey and argillaceous in nature. It
overlies the partly weathered nodular limestone.
Good outcrops of coralline limestone occur near Thuati, Barkhera,
Ajanta, Khandlai, Karaindia, Chakkod, Deola, Oudiapura and Chirankhan.
The Coralline LImestone is yellow to red, light green an driddish
browns in colour. It is fine grained and compact and is fossiliferous
containg abundant fragments of bryozoa. The fossils are mostly similar
to those in the above bcds . The following fossils have been found
in the nodular limestone, Deola marl and coralline limestone.
- Enchinoidea: Species of Echinobrissus,
Hemiaster, Doroidaris Salenia.
- Bryozoa: Species of Ceriopora, Escharina
- Vermes: Species of Serpula and Hamulus.
- Lamellibranchiata: Species of Astarte,
Pinna, Ostrea, Opis, Modiola, Protecardium, Inoceramus, Pholadomys,
Pinna, Alectryonia and Neithea.
- Gastropodap: Species of Eulguraria, Fascileria,
Lyria, Natica, Euspita, Turriculla, Naticina, Gerithium and Chemitzia.
- Cephalopoda: Species of Placenticers.
- Brachiopada: Species of Rhynchonella.
- Foraminifera: Species of Pondicularia,
Spiroloculing, Robulus, Cibicides, Ammobaculites and Bolivina.
The Lametas crop out about 2 km south-west of
Bagh, north of Aspira and south-westward upto Hatini.
These are represented by shales, ferruginous sandstones and cherty
limestones. These are brown to yellowish brown and fine to medium
grained. Fossil wood of Gymnosperm species has been reported from
By far the major part of the district is covered
by the Deccan Trap locally called the Malwa Trap. Its flows have a
horozontal dispostion. Nine basaltic flows have been recorded in the
area. The flows vary in thickness from about 10 to 36 metres. The
basalt in some flows is massive, compact and fine-grained in nature.
It is steel grey ot dark grey in colour. But at places it is purple,
grained black to dark grey in colour and vesicular in nature with
zeolites (stylbite, natrolire and mesolite), calcite and secondary
silica as vesicular fillings. The rocks contain phenocrysts of plagioclase
felspar embedded in mesostasis of labrodorite microlites, granules
of augire, iron ore and glass.
Intertrappean horizons are represented by red boles, limestone and
gritty sandstone. At places the traps have irrigular thin laterite
The nodular and coralline limestones are locally used for lime-burning
and Road Metal
The gneisses of the area can be used as building
material. The Nimar sandstone and the Coralline limestone are quarried
near Aspura and Dehadli. The slabs are used in the construction of
houses, lining of the well, etc. The trap rock is best suited for
road metal and is extensively used in the area. At places limestones
are also used for the same purpose.
Zeolites and Semi-precious
Occurrences of zeolites (mostly stibite type)
and semiprecious stones like agate, chalcedony, opal, amethyst, and
other forms of silica are sporadic. The zeolites are finding use in
water-softening, petroleum refinaries etc. The cryptocrystalline froms
of sillica are mostly used in jewellery an dinterior decoration.
Irregular masses of breccia, with matrix of
brown hematite are found at Bag and west of Indwan.
Groundwater occurs mostly in the weathered mantle
and very insignificantly along the rifts, grains, and the horizontal
joints. Thicker the weathered mantle and coarser the underlying bouldery
horizon of sheared gneisses and granites, richer is the groundwater
potential. The yield from an individual well is 4,000 liters generally
but never exceeding 20,000 litres per day.
On phyllites and schists the groundwater occurs along the planes of
schitocity. Well sites on Bagh beds along the mala yield about 4,000
litres of water per hour and continue usually for a period of 3 to
4 hours. In the case of vesicular basalts if the vesicles are inter-connected,
the groundwater accumulation is favorable.
Red bole bands often form the marker horizons in prospection for groundwater.
Inter-trappean beds of significant thickness and aerial extent neat
the ground surface play distinct role in the local behaviour of the
Within the traps the water level is found to vary in depth from 6
to 13 metres from the surface. The yield also varies considerably.
A well yielding 4,000 litres per hour continuously for 8 hours is
quite common. Of course those yielding to 15,000 to 20,000 litres
per hour reported.
Yield from the wells in the Lameta sandstone is fairly large but due
to the small aerial extent of the rocks the importance is greatly
Sinking of tubewellls may be feasible on the alluvium, clay, sand
and gravel if their thickness is found favourable.
Apart from the village forests, there are 901
sq. kilometres of reserved and 377 sq. km of protected forests in
the district. The reserved and protected forests are Government forests
under the State Forest Department, of which the former are well demacated
and better managed. Concessions or public rights are denied in the
reserved forests whereas Nistar rights are allowed, with the pernission
of the Department, in the protected forests. The Reseved forest of
Dewas district are those directly managed by the Forests Departments
of the ex-states of Gwalior, Dhar, Holkar and Dewas, senior and Junior,
prior to their merger. The forest under the then Jagirdars and proprietors,
not well maintained under scientfic management systems, are now grouped
under the protected forests. Ultimately, on their coming up to certain
standards of crop composition and management facilities, these too
are to be declared as reserved forests. According to Sir Harry Champion's
classification modified by V.K. Seth the forests are Southern Trophical
Dry Deciduous forests. Ecologically these are sub-divided in to the
following sub-types and edaphic sub-types.
|| Dry Teak forests
||a Dry Teak
b Very Dry teak forests.
||Dry Mixed forests
||a General Mixed forests.
b Salai forests.
c Anjan forests.
d Scrub forests.
The main characteristics of forests in Dhar district is that they
are composed of a large number of moist species. It is usually predominated
by the teak (Tactonagrandis) except on the hills under limestones
and quartz, or on hard lateritic and shallow soils, the conditions
for the predominace of salai and anjan, respectively. In most parts
of the forests in Dhar district there are three storeys of the tree
canopy. The scrubs herbs an grasses abound where the Top canopy and
the middle canopy are open due to adverse growing. Dry teak forests
are classed with the proportion of teak being 20 per cent or above
in the crop. Teak thrives well on the well-drained shallw soils on
the sides of Trap hills. They are stunted on the conglomerate and
crystalline rocks but disappear from the Nimar sandstones.
Dry Teak Forests
The edaphic sub-type 1 dry teak is found on the middle and lower slopes
of the Vindhya scarp on the mixed black and sandy granite soil. It
occurs extensively on the eastern and northen slopes of Bagh, Sardarpur,
Dhamnod and Manawar ranges. They occupy about 331 sq. km in the alluivial
parts of valleys of the Khuj, the Man, the Karam, the Bagh and the
Keshawi. This is the climax vegetation of the area stabilised by the
reduction of other varities due to grazing and fires. Over the rich
and deeper alluvial mantle and sandy loam with minimum biotic interferene
a more moist type is found in the sheltered valleys of Kalghati, Kheri,
Kuan, Khirkiyan, Anjnai and Parbatpura. In such areas the top canopy
is usually filled up by teak well with an increased number of associate
Very Dry Teak Forests
Under very dry conditions, scanty cover of infertile and crystalline
rock soils very poor quality of teak forests is found on the upper
contours of the Vindhyan scarps. The percentage of take decreases
with the increase of dry deciduous species like, salai, dhava,
saja, aonla, reunjha, moyan, etc. An increase in the shrubs, herbs,
grasses and climbers is clearly marked.
The Mixed forests vary from the general type. The admixtue of a large
number of species to dry types like that of salai and the maltreated
areas of scrubs and grasses. These occur over very undulating toporgraphy
over Nimar sandstone and quartzites. They occupy the south-western
part of the district and stray hills south of the scarps. Mostly in
degraded conditions of the overwood and underwood are hardly distinguishable.
Among the associates salai, anjun, rohan, dhaora, saj and chloroxylon
swietenia are most widespread. The general compostition of the cover
is given below-
Top canopy is found in the best of these forests. Like those in the
teak forests, they consist of the following species. Teak, sadar,
moyan, dhava, tendu, kari, bija, rohan, kalam, kasai, bel, lendia,
salai, shisham and kareya-saja.
Sadar, dhava, mokha, anjan, achar, rendu, aonla, bel, palas, bhirya,
kulu, babool, khair, moyan and ghandrali.
Kronda, mahandhi, muwali, bharati, vasuka, biagan, nirgundi and
aghada, tiperi, bajna and bantulsi.
Grasses Guniar, phulera, musel,
paoni, sukri, lamphera and bhurbhsi.
Gumchi, arail, chaudhari, arail, piwar bel, irni, gurbel, keoti, kalidudhi,
chilati (Millettia auriculata) and chilati (Clasamples perier).
The edaphic subtype of the Dry Decidous Mixed forest is found over
the dry hills and ridges of Ramgarh, Jamli, Neemkeda, Manasamal
and Mian pahad forest blocks. Salai occurs to over 50 persent
of the crop on the limestone corralline limestone, and quartz. It
is seen sometimes over shales. The regeneration is plentiful by root-suckers
but the trees are not very well grown. They grow to about 10 metres
in height and one metre in girth. At places it has very clearly come
up as the residual form of vegetation after the general maltreatment
by men and selective exloitation of other species. Repeated fires
have added to this trend. The common associates in the edaphic sub-type
are salar, moyan, dhava, khair, gadhu and in stunted form,
Anjan forests are found in some of the maltreated areas of
Dry Deciduous forests. They occupy the western portion of Vindhyan
scarps and area between the Narmada and Bagh. The country is typified
by poor soil on hard murram and laterite, aeration and drainage.
Anjan is seen in green leaves all the year round. Its leaves are also
used as cattle feed. This together with problematic regeneration has
left it in to poor conditons. The forest is open with dimensions of
trees 10 metre height and one metre in girth.
Dry Deciduous Scrub Forests
The scrub forests are confined to the immediate slopes of Malwa Plateau
from Mandu to Bamanpuri and Panara blocks and compartments no. 325
to 326 and 341 to 379. The denuded ground and dry and shallow soil
under the stemmed and crooked stock of babul, pilu chandar, bel,
hingan, sindi, etc. indicate that these have been converted to
the present stage from Dry teak forests. The soil is generally lateritic
invaded by thorny species, like ber, thuar, nagphani, reunjha,
Source : Madhya Pradesh district Gazetteer, Dhar published by
Directorate of Gazetteers, Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal