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DHAR DISTRICT
Geography

GEOGRAPHICAL

Physical Divisions


The district extends over three physiographic divisions. They are the Malwa in the north, the Vindhyachal range in central zone and the Narmada valley along the southern boundary. However, the valley is again closed up by the hills in the south-western part.

The Vindhyachal range


A part of the range extends in the district in a crescentic belt generally from south-east to north-west. The range is represented by a strip of hilly area 5 to 20 kilometres in width. It is about 5 km wide near village Dhani near the south-eastern boundary. Near Mograbav in the centre, it is about 10 km further widening to 20 km west of Tanda. To the west of Bagh and Kukshi the range stands disconnected by the valleys of the Mahi and Hatni.

It restarts along the Narmada in the south-west. The northern spur (peak 543.76 metres) froms the boundary between the Sardarpur tahsil and Jhabua district. It extends from the peak of Gomanpura (556.26 metres) to Bajrangarh in Jhabua. Another spur extends to wards Jhabua in the north-west. The great Vindhyachal range extends generally from west to east and scarps at most of its length towards the south. In Dhar also the south-ward escarps are well marked, the wall rising from 400 to 600 metres. However, in the western part their faces have been eroded back into long and deep rugged valleys of the tributary hills of the Narmada. In fact the strong currents of the small strems on the steep southern side have cut back at their heads. The numerous streams of the Narmada valley find their sources on the Malwa plateau. The main line of the highest peaks has been left to the south of their present courses.

In the eastern and central parts of the Vindhyachal in Dhar the main hill range is continuous but in the west it is dissected by deep channels of the rivulets. The range slopes towards the north and gradually meets the Malwa plateau. Numerous spurs also extend over the Malwa plateau in the north. But in the western half in the district one may also find a series of denuded ridges alternating with the parallel stream-channels and running for some kilometres from local confusion, unless one tries to trace the line of the main peaks.

The hightest peak of the district, Mograba (751.03 metres) lies in the central part. Nilkanth (702.26 metres) lies further east and the Shikarpura hill rises up to 698.91 metres. The famous historical fort of Mandugarh towers the flat-topped hill about 600 metres, from the mean sea level.

The Malwa Plateau

The northern half of the district lies on the Malwa plateau. It covers the northern parts of Dhar, Sardarpur and Badnawar tahsils. The average elevation of the plateau is 500 metres above the mean sea level. The land is undulation with a few scattered flat topped hills roughly aligned between the valleys from south to north. The general slope is towards the north. The valleys are covered with black cotton soil of varying thickness, mostly adapted for cultivation. The mounds may bear gravels or the underlaying sandstone rocks may have been exposed. The plateau covers an area of about 466,196 hectares in the district.

The Narmada Valley

Below the Vindhyachal scarps lies the narrow valley of the Narmada. It occupies the sourthern part of the district in Manawar tahsil and the south-eastern part of Kukshi tahsil. The width of the valley is 15 to 30 kilometres. The elavation varies from 275 metres in the northern part of Manawar tahsil to 150 metres in the low plain of Nisarpur in the south-west. To the east between Khalghat and Bakaner the valley is undulation wider, more open and fertile with alluvial cover. Proceeding westwards the valley is studded with hills alternatively cut up by numerous streams which join the Narmada along the southern boundary of the district. The result is that there are few stretches and pockets of alluvium along the streams.

River System

The southern part of the district lies in the catchment area of the Narmada which forms the southern boundary. The north-eastern part is drained by the Chambal and its tributaries. It forms the catchment area of the Ganga. The north-western part drains into the Mahi. The water-dividing line between the Narmada and the Chambal and the Mahi are separated by the off-shoot range which runs along the Sardarpur-Jhabua boundary.

The Narmada river flows along the southern boundary of the district in a rift valley from east to west with a southerly inclination. It rises from the Amarkantak plateau of the Satpura range in Shahdol district. Flowing to the west it touches the district at Lasangaon at the confluence with the Karametre It forms the southern boundary of the district along with that of the West Nimar for about 107 Kilometres. It receives the Boad, Dob, Mahali and Goi on its left while the Karam, the Man, and the Bagh join its right bank.

The river has been mentioned by Ptolemy and the author of the Periplus. The Ramayana, the Mahabharat and Puranas refer to it frequently. The Rewa Khand of Vayu Puran and the Rewa Khand of Skand Puran are entirely devoted to the story of the birth and the importance of the River. It is said to have sprung from the body of Lord Shiva. It was created in the form of a lovely damsel who enamoured gods and hence named by the Lord as Narmada, delight giving.

It is also said to have been in love with the Sonbhadra, another river flowing on the Chhota Nagpur plateau. According to the Puranas the Narmada is also called the Rewa, from its leaping motion (from the root rev) through its rocky bed.

To Shiva the river is specially sacred on account of its origin, and it is often called Shankari, i.e., daughter of Shankar. All the pebbles rolling on its bed are said to take the shape of his emblem with the saying. Narmada Ke Kanker utte Sankar. These lingam (phallus) shaped stones, called Banalinga are much sought after for daily worship by the Hindus.

In the central parts of India the river is held to be far more sacred than any other stream in India. Even Ganga herself is obliged to come and dip in these waters once a year. She comes in the form of a coal-black cow and dip in these waters once a year. She comes in the form of a coal-black cow and returns home pure white, free from all sins. A sighting of the Narmada is considered equivalent to a bath in the Ganga. At numerous places along its course there are temples, and fairs are held. Pilgrims perform Pradakshina, i.e, walking along the southern bank from its source to the mouth and going back along the northern bank. The performance is regarded to be of the highest religious efficacy.

The river is crossed by roads at Khalghat and Chikhalda in the district. Otherwise ferries are managed by the local administration at important crossings.

The Course of the Narmada

The source of the Naramada is a small tank called Narmada Kund located on the Amarkantak hill (1057 m).The river descends from the Amarkantak hill range at the Kapildhara falls over a cliff. After leaving Shahdol district it meaders in the hills flowing through a tortuous course crossing the rocks and islands up to the ruined palace of Ramnagar. Between Ramnagar and Mandla 25 km further southeast the course is comparatively straight with deep water devoid of rocky obstacles. The Banger joins from the left. The rever then runs north-east in a narrow loop towards Jabalpur. Close to this city , after a fall of some 9metre called the Dhuandhara, the fall of mist, it flows for 3 km in a deep narrow channel which it has carved out for itself through the magnesium limestone and basalt. From a width of about 90 metres above, it is compressed in this channel of 18 metres only. The highest point of the cliff was measured 40.5 metres. (133 feet) height above the water level in December,1965, by the Geologial Survey of India, Madhya Pradesh Circle, Jabalpur. Beyond this point up to its meeting the Arabian Sea the Narmada enters three narrow valleys between the Vindhyan Scarps in the north and the Satpura range in the South. The southern extension of the valley is wider at most places. These three valley sections are separated by the closely approaching line of the scarps and the Satpura hills.

Emerging from the Marble Rocks the river enters its first fertile basin which extend, about 320 km, with an average width of 35 km in the south. In the north the valley is limited to the Barna-bareli plain, termination at Barkhara hills opposite Hoshangabad. However, the hills again recede in the Kannod plains. The banks are about 12 metre high. It is in the first valley of the Naramada. Many of its important tributaries from the south join it, and bring the waters of the northern slopes of the Satpura hills. Among them are the sher, the Shakkar, the Dudhi, the Tawa & the Ganjal. The Hiran, the Barna, the Choral, the Karam and the Lohar are the important tributaries joining from the north. The large dams and irrigaton projects constructed across the Tawa and the Barna are of immense potentiality for multifarious economic developments on either side of the Narmada.

Below Handia and Nemawar to Hiran fall (the deer's leap) the river is approached by hills from both sides. In this stretch the character of the river is varied. The Onkareshwar island sacred to the Shiva is the most important river island in Madhya Pradesh. At first the descent is rapid and the stream, quickening in pace, rushes over a barrier of rocks. The Sikta and the Kaveri join it below the Khandwa plain. At two points, at Mandhar, about 40 km below Nemawar, and Dadrai, 40 km further down near Punasa the river falls over a height of about 12 metre

A few kilometres further down near Bareli and the crossing ghat of the Mumbai to Indore road the Narmada enters the Mandleshwar plain, the second basin about 180 km long and 65 km wide in the south. The northern strip of the basin is only 25 km The second valley section is broken only by Saheshwar Dhara fall. The early course of about 125 km up to Markari falls is met with a succession of cataracts and rapids from the elevated table land of Malwa to the lowlevel of Gujarat plain. Towards the west of this basin the hills draw very close but soon dwindle down.

Below Makrai the river flows between Baroda and Nandod and then meander through the rich plain of Broach district of Gujarat state. The banks are high between the layers of old alluvial deposits, hardened mud, gravels of nodular limestone and sand. The width of the river spans from about 1.5 km at Makrai to 3 km near Broach and to an estuary of 21 km at the Gulf of Cambay. An old channel of the river 1 to 2 km south from the present one is very clear below broach. The Karanjan and the Orsing are the most important tributaries in the ower course. The former joins at Rundh and the latter at Vyas in Baroda district of Gujarat, opposite each other and form a Triveni on the Narmada. The Amaravati and the Bhukhi are other tributaries of significance. Opposite the mouth of the Bhukhi is a large drift called Alia Bet or Kadaria Bet.

The tidal rise is felt up to 32 km above Broach, where the neap tides rise to about a metre and spring tide 3.5 metre The reach of the saline tidal water make the river unsuitable for irrigation. The river is navigable for vessels of the burthen of 95 tonnes (i.e., 380 Bombay candies) up to Broach and for vessels up to 35 tonnes (140 Bombay candies) up to Shamlapitha er Ghangdia. The small vessels (10 tonnes) voyage upto Tilakawada in Gujrat. There are sand bases and shoals at mouth and at Broach, to count important ones only.

The Chambal

The Chambal, Charmanwati or Charmawati of the ancient times rises from the western slopes of Janapao hill (854.35 metre) in Indore district. It is the most important river of Malwa. Initially it has a north westerly course and flows through Dhar district for 17 km separating the Sagor projection in the east. The river then turns to the north and forms the eastern boundary for about 10 km The river further flows in to Ujjain, Ratlam and Mandsaur districts of Madhya Pradesh while forming the northern boundary of Gwalior Division. The river tributes the Yamuna.

The Chambal is joined by the Bageri nala and the Chambala nala on its left, which drain most of Dhar and Badnwar Tahsil. The Banas joins the Chambal on its left bank whereas the Parwan, Parwati, Kunu and the Sind join it on the right bank.

The Mahi River


The Mahi river rises from the northern slopes of the Gomanpur hills in Sardarpur tahsil. It flows due north and forms the north-western boundary of Sardarpur tahsil. The river is joined by the Bageri nala from the right before it leaves the district. Thence it takes a north-westerly course in Ratlam district. After crossing the Banswara district of Rajasthan the river takes an acute turn towards the south-west and enters in to the Bay of Khambhat.

The Karam

The Karam rises from the Singarchori hill of Indore. It drains a small area north of the Vindhyachal range and cuts across it to the south, forms the south-eastern boundary near Gujari and joins the Narmada.

The Man


It rises from the southern scarps of the Malwa plateau. It flows to the south and joins the Narmada past Nimkhera and Kheri amidst the hills and Manawar and Bakaner in the Narmada valley.

The Bagh

The Bagh and the Uri also rise from the southern scraps and jointly drain into the Narmada. Tanda is located on the bank of Uri. The Bagh flows past Bagh, Kukshi and Nisarpur. The Hatni rises in Jhabua district and forms the western boundary of Dhar for some distance before joining the Narmada.

 
 
Geology

The geological formation are bedded in the following order of increasing antiquity.

Archaeans

The foliation trend of the metasediments varies from N. 35 o W. - S. 35 o E. to N. 65 o W. - S. 65 o E. The dip is steeply towards south-west and north-east. The metasediments in the vicinity of Bagh are folded into an isoclinal synciline which appears to plunge towards south-east.

The biotite- gneiss is pink to light grey in colour and contains thin bands of quartz-feldspathic material alternating with mafics. The gneiss occurs in the Bagh river section between Khera and Oria, the Gadri river section between Kher and Pipri and around Baktala.

The siliceous dolomite is dark-grey, compact and finegrained. It contains essentially quartz and dolomite. It occurs near Tanda, Jamla and Barkhera.

Slates and phyllites, pink to grey, are found near Bagh, Tanda, Deojhiri and Barkhera.

The amphibolites occur as instrusions, generally as sills, into the biotite gneisses and phyllites. These rocks are medium to coarse grained and dark green to black in colour. They are hard compact. Mineralogically, they consist of hornblende, quartz, oligoclase, andesine and subordinate labradorite sphene, apatite, magnetite and ilmenite occur as accessories. These occur near Bharkia, Udaipur and Balda.


Intrusices (Pegmatite and Quartz Veins)

A pegmatite vein occurs within the gneiss near Bharkia. Except slates, all other Archaean metased ments of the area are traversed by quartz veins, mostly comformable to their foliation planes.

Bagh Beds

The Bagh beds comprise the Nimar sandstone and nodular limestone. Deola-Marl and Coralline Limestones in the ascending order and occur as inliers within the Deccan Trap. Of these, the last three members are profusely fossiliferous and attain a thickness of about 25 metre These beds are of marine sedimentary origin. They are horizontally bedded.

The Nimar sandstone is well exposed along the Bagh river, of Bagh , the Uri river north of Ajanta, the Gadri river, north of Pipri, the hatni river and the man river east of Gandhwani. The Nimar Sandstone is yellow to brownish red in colour. It is ferruginous, medium to coarse grained, gritty and slightly calcareous in nature. East to Bagh and near Satemari the sadstone is conglomeratic and contains pebbles of quartz and jasper.

In this section this rock contains quartz together with microcline, oligoclase and fragments of quartzite, granite, cherts and basic rocks. The matric is ferruginous, siliceous calcarous and clayey. Tourmaline, zircon, apatite, rutile, garnet and sphene are the heavy minerals.

The following fossils have been found in the upper beds of Nimar near Amlipura, Ajanta and on Bagh-Kukshi road:
  1. Shark: Species of Lamna and Scapanerhunchus

Molluscs Species of Ostrea, Turritella, and Natica, and also fossilised wood and bone fragments.

Major occurrences of the Nedular limestone are found near Jamniapura, on both sides of the Bagh river near Nandgaon and Khandlai. It is thinly bedded and white to light blue and light brown in colour. The nodules are of calcareou and cherty nature. The limestone is soft, cavernous and fossiliferous.

The Devla marl is well developed in the Man river valley near Deola, Chirakhan, Chakrod, Karaondia, south of Thuati and north of Ajanta. It is soft and highly friable, grey and argillaceous in nature. It overlies the partly weathered nodular limestone.

Good outcrops of coralline limestone occur near Thuati, Barkhera, Ajanta, Khandlai, Karaindia, Chakkod, Deola, Oudiapura and Chirankhan. The Coralline LImestone is yellow to red, light green an driddish browns in colour. It is fine grained and compact and is fossiliferous containg abundant fragments of bryozoa. The fossils are mostly similar to those in the above bcds . The following fossils have been found in the nodular limestone, Deola marl and coralline limestone.

  • Enchinoidea: Species of Echinobrissus, Hemiaster, Doroidaris Salenia.
  • Bryozoa: Species of Ceriopora, Escharina and Eschara.
  • Vermes: Species of Serpula and Hamulus.
  • Lamellibranchiata: Species of Astarte, Pinna, Ostrea, Opis, Modiola, Protecardium, Inoceramus, Pholadomys, Pinna, Alectryonia and Neithea.
  • Gastropodap: Species of Eulguraria, Fascileria, Lyria, Natica, Euspita, Turriculla, Naticina, Gerithium and Chemitzia.
  • Cephalopoda: Species of Placenticers.
  • Brachiopada: Species of Rhynchonella.
  • Foraminifera: Species of Pondicularia, Spiroloculing, Robulus, Cibicides, Ammobaculites and Bolivina.

Lameta Beds

The Lametas crop out about 2 km south-west of Bagh, north of Aspira and south-westward upto Hatini.

These are represented by shales, ferruginous sandstones and cherty limestones. These are brown to yellowish brown and fine to medium grained. Fossil wood of Gymnosperm species has been reported from the beds.

Deccan Trap

By far the major part of the district is covered by the Deccan Trap locally called the Malwa Trap. Its flows have a horozontal dispostion. Nine basaltic flows have been recorded in the area. The flows vary in thickness from about 10 to 36 metres. The basalt in some flows is massive, compact and fine-grained in nature. It is steel grey ot dark grey in colour. But at places it is purple, grained black to dark grey in colour and vesicular in nature with zeolites (stylbite, natrolire and mesolite), calcite and secondary silica as vesicular fillings. The rocks contain phenocrysts of plagioclase felspar embedded in mesostasis of labrodorite microlites, granules of augire, iron ore and glass.

Intertrappean horizons are represented by red boles, limestone and gritty sandstone. At places the traps have irrigular thin laterite cappings.


Mineral Limestones The nodular and coralline limestones are locally used for lime-burning .

Building Materials and Road Metal

The gneisses of the area can be used as building material. The Nimar sandstone and the Coralline limestone are quarried near Aspura and Dehadli. The slabs are used in the construction of houses, lining of the well, etc. The trap rock is best suited for road metal and is extensively used in the area. At places limestones are also used for the same purpose.

Zeolites and Semi-precious Stones

Occurrences of zeolites (mostly stibite type) and semiprecious stones like agate, chalcedony, opal, amethyst, and other forms of silica are sporadic. The zeolites are finding use in water-softening, petroleum refinaries etc. The cryptocrystalline froms of sillica are mostly used in jewellery an dinterior decoration.

Iron ore

Irregular masses of breccia, with matrix of brown hematite are found at Bag and west of Indwan.

Ground Water

Groundwater occurs mostly in the weathered mantle and very insignificantly along the rifts, grains, and the horizontal joints. Thicker the weathered mantle and coarser the underlying bouldery horizon of sheared gneisses and granites, richer is the groundwater potential. The yield from an individual well is 4,000 liters generally but never exceeding 20,000 litres per day.

On phyllites and schists the groundwater occurs along the planes of schitocity. Well sites on Bagh beds along the mala yield about 4,000 litres of water per hour and continue usually for a period of 3 to 4 hours. In the case of vesicular basalts if the vesicles are inter-connected, the groundwater accumulation is favorable.

Red bole bands often form the marker horizons in prospection for groundwater. Inter-trappean beds of significant thickness and aerial extent neat the ground surface play distinct role in the local behaviour of the groundwater.

Within the traps the water level is found to vary in depth from 6 to 13 metres from the surface. The yield also varies considerably. A well yielding 4,000 litres per hour continuously for 8 hours is quite common. Of course those yielding to 15,000 to 20,000 litres per hour reported.

Yield from the wells in the Lameta sandstone is fairly large but due to the small aerial extent of the rocks the importance is greatly lost.

Sinking of tubewellls may be feasible on the alluvium, clay, sand and gravel if their thickness is found favourable.

Flora

Apart from the village forests, there are 901 sq. kilometres of reserved and 377 sq. km of protected forests in the district. The reserved and protected forests are Government forests under the State Forest Department, of which the former are well demacated and better managed. Concessions or public rights are denied in the reserved forests whereas Nistar rights are allowed, with the pernission of the Department, in the protected forests. The Reseved forest of Dewas district are those directly managed by the Forests Departments of the ex-states of Gwalior, Dhar, Holkar and Dewas, senior and Junior, prior to their merger. The forest under the then Jagirdars and proprietors, not well maintained under scientfic management systems, are now grouped under the protected forests. Ultimately, on their coming up to certain standards of crop composition and management facilities, these too are to be declared as reserved forests. According to Sir Harry Champion's classification modified by V.K. Seth the forests are Southern Trophical Dry Deciduous forests. Ecologically these are sub-divided in to the following sub-types and edaphic sub-types.

1. Dry Teak forests a   Dry Teak Forests.
    b   Very Dry teak forests.
2. Dry Mixed forests a General Mixed forests.
    b   Salai forests.
    c   Anjan forests.
    d   Scrub forests.


The main characteristics of forests in Dhar district is that they are composed of a large number of moist species. It is usually predominated by the teak (Tactonagrandis) except on the hills under limestones and quartz, or on hard lateritic and shallow soils, the conditions for the predominace of salai and anjan, respectively. In most parts of the forests in Dhar district there are three storeys of the tree canopy. The scrubs herbs an grasses abound where the Top canopy and the middle canopy are open due to adverse growing. Dry teak forests are classed with the proportion of teak being 20 per cent or above in the crop. Teak thrives well on the well-drained shallw soils on the sides of Trap hills. They are stunted on the conglomerate and crystalline rocks but disappear from the Nimar sandstones.

Dry Teak Forests


The edaphic sub-type 1 dry teak is found on the middle and lower slopes of the Vindhya scarp on the mixed black and sandy granite soil. It occurs extensively on the eastern and northen slopes of Bagh, Sardarpur, Dhamnod and Manawar ranges. They occupy about 331 sq. km in the alluivial parts of valleys of the Khuj, the Man, the Karam, the Bagh and the Keshawi. This is the climax vegetation of the area stabilised by the reduction of other varities due to grazing and fires. Over the rich and deeper alluvial mantle and sandy loam with minimum biotic interferene a more moist type is found in the sheltered valleys of Kalghati, Kheri, Kuan, Khirkiyan, Anjnai and Parbatpura. In such areas the top canopy is usually filled up by teak well with an increased number of associate species.

Very Dry Teak Forests

Under very dry conditions, scanty cover of infertile and crystalline rock soils very poor quality of teak forests is found on the upper contours of the Vindhyan scarps. The percentage of take decreases with the increase of dry deciduous species like, salai, dhava, saja, aonla, reunjha, moyan, etc. An increase in the shrubs, herbs, grasses and climbers is clearly marked.

Mixed Forests


The Mixed forests vary from the general type. The admixtue of a large number of species to dry types like that of salai and the maltreated areas of scrubs and grasses. These occur over very undulating toporgraphy over Nimar sandstone and quartzites. They occupy the south-western part of the district and stray hills south of the scarps. Mostly in degraded conditions of the overwood and underwood are hardly distinguishable. Among the associates salai, anjun, rohan, dhaora, saj and chloroxylon swietenia are most widespread. The general compostition of the cover is given below-

Top Canopy


Top canopy is found in the best of these forests. Like those in the teak forests, they consist of the following species. Teak, sadar, moyan, dhava, tendu, kari, bija, rohan, kalam, kasai, bel, lendia, salai, shisham and kareya-saja.

Second Storey.

Sadar, dhava, mokha, anjan, achar, rendu, aonla, bel, palas, bhirya, kulu, babool, khair, moyan and ghandrali.

Shrubs
Soharn, Kronda, mahandhi, muwali, bharati, vasuka, biagan, nirgundi and dudhi.

Herbs
Tarota, aghada, tiperi, bajna and bantulsi.

Grasses Guniar, phulera, musel, paoni, sukri, lamphera and bhurbhsi.

Climbers


Gumchi, arail, chaudhari, arail, piwar bel, irni, gurbel, keoti, kalidudhi, chilati (Millettia auriculata) and chilati (Clasamples perier).

Salari Forests


The edaphic subtype of the Dry Decidous Mixed forest is found over the dry hills and ridges of Ramgarh, Jamli, Neemkeda, Manasamal and Mian pahad forest blocks. Salai occurs to over 50 persent of the crop on the limestone corralline limestone, and quartz. It is seen sometimes over shales. The regeneration is plentiful by root-suckers but the trees are not very well grown. They grow to about 10 metres in height and one metre in girth. At places it has very clearly come up as the residual form of vegetation after the general maltreatment by men and selective exloitation of other species. Repeated fires have added to this trend. The common associates in the edaphic sub-type are salar, moyan, dhava, khair, gadhu and in stunted form, teak.

Anjan Forests


Anjan forests are found in some of the maltreated areas of Dry Deciduous forests. They occupy the western portion of Vindhyan scarps and area between the Narmada and Bagh. The country is typified by poor soil on hard murram and laterite, aeration and drainage. Anjan is seen in green leaves all the year round. Its leaves are also used as cattle feed. This together with problematic regeneration has left it in to poor conditons. The forest is open with dimensions of trees 10 metre height and one metre in girth.

Dry Deciduous Scrub Forests


The scrub forests are confined to the immediate slopes of Malwa Plateau from Mandu to Bamanpuri and Panara blocks and compartments no. 325 to 326 and 341 to 379. The denuded ground and dry and shallow soil under the stemmed and crooked stock of babul, pilu chandar, bel, hingan, sindi, etc. indicate that these have been converted to the present stage from Dry teak forests. The soil is generally lateritic invaded by thorny species, like ber, thuar, nagphani, reunjha, etc


Source : Madhya Pradesh district Gazetteer, Dhar published by Directorate of Gazetteers, Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal


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